Oracle database can store only 255 columns in a single row-piece. Anything beyond 255 columns will be stored as a separate row, chained to the main one. This kind of chaining is different from what we know as migrated/chained rows which happen either because of lack of space in current block which causes rows to migrate when updated leaving behind their new address or due to row size more than the block size itself. Both these types of chaining are inter-block row chaining.
intra-block row chaining (as i mentioned above happens due to number of columns exceeding 255) does not cause as much a performance issue as inter-block row chaining. This is because all the row contents could still be found within the same block. When there is a full table scan, DB can easily do scattered reads over this table with number of blocks spanning up to the value for parameter db_file_multiblock_read_count. For scanning rows which are chained to another block, as is the case with migrated/chained rows, DB has to do sequential reads with one block read at a time. This summarily degrades query performance.
Unlike Inter-block row chaining, Intra-block row chaining cannot be detected using ANALYZE TABLE LIST CHAINED ROWS command. However, there is a way to see to what extent the rows are chained. Look out for statistic " table fech continued row". As you access the table with 255+ columns, this value will keep increasing.
select name, value from v$sysstat where name like 'table fetch %';
Note that if all the columns beyond 255 columns have NULL values, the row will not be chained.